Why do computers use so much energy What are the fundamental physical laws governing the relationship between the precise computation run by a system, whether artificial or natural, and how much energy that computation requires Can we learn how to improve efficiency in computing by examining how biological computers manage to be so efficient The time is ripe for a new synthesis of nonequilibrium physics, computer science, and biochemistry.This volume integrates pure and applied concepts from these diverse fields, with the goal of cultivating a modern, nonequilibrium thermodynamics of computation.